ITK v5 Migration Guide#

This guide documents the changes required to migrate a code base which uses ITK v4 to use ITK v5. The migration guide for transition from v3 to v4 can be found here.

Legacy code removed#

All code which was marked as legacy in ITK 4.13 has been removed. External code which previously required ITK_LEGACY_REMOVE CMake option to be OFF in order to build will now fail to compile. Before starting migration to v5 (as explained in this guide), migration to v4 should be finished. Dependent code should build and pass tests with ITK_LEGACY_REMOVE turned ON when compiling against ITK v4.13.

Code which was marked as ITK_FUTURE_LEGACY_REMOVE has been now re-flagged as ITK_LEGACY_REMOVE. There have been some other deprecations and API changes. The new behavior is activated by setting ITK_LEGACY_REMOVE to ON. By default, compatibility with v4 is retained (ITK_LEGACY_REMOVE=OFF).

The first step is to get the external code building against ITK compiled with ITKV4_COMPATIBILITY set to ON. Once that is accomplished, turn this option OFF. It is OFF by default.

Once external code builds successfully with the default configuration (ITKV4_COMPATIBILITY and ITK_LEGACY_REMOVE both OFF), ITK_LEGACY_REMOVE should be set to ON. Possible additional build errors and/or warnings should be addressed. Once dependent code builds and passes tests without legacy options, migration to v5 is complete.

Support for for pre-20160229 VXL_VERSION_DATE_FULL system installed versions of VXL has been removed. VXL now supports more common Semantic Versioning conventions with the minimum supported version for ITKv5 being 2.0.2 (as of 2018-11-30).


A major improvement in ITK 5 is to fully adopt C++11. Prior to ITK 5, a limited subset of C++11 functionalities were available in ITK through back-ports and macros. This functionality was enabled when ITK was built with the C++11 standard enabled. ITK 5.0.0 deprecates or removes these macros (e.g. ITK_NULLPTR, ITK_DELETED_FUNCTION, ITK_NOEXCEPT, ITK_CONSTEXPR) and directly uses C++11 keywords such as delete, constexpr, nullptr, override, noexcept. The keywords auto and using [1, 2] as well as range-based loops are also now used in ITK. As a consequence, due to limitations in C++11 support Visual Studio 2013 (MSVC 12.0) and other older C++ complilers cannot be used to build ITK from 5.0 and forward.

Errors similar to error: conversion from 'int' to 'typename InterpolatorType::Pointer' are a result of further type safety for dealing with pointers. Enhancements in nullptr behavior in ITKv5 provide more clear type checking and respect the nullptr identifier. The ‘long 0’ value known as NULL causes an ambiguity for overload compilations of the ITKv5 smartpointers. To be backwards compatible with pre C++11 compilers use the ITK_NULLPTR designation, otherwise replace NULL and 0 initialization of itk::SmartPointer with nullptr.

Availability of the C++11 standard allows use of many Standard Library features. These were previously implemented as portable ITK classes. The standard library classes are preferred over ITK’s implementations. The most notable examples of this are:

To modernize your code base, replace:

  • SimpleFastMutexLock with std::mutex, and #include "itkSimpleFastMutexLock.h" with #include <mutex>.

  • FastMutexLock with std::mutex, and #include "itkFastMutexLock.h" with #include <mutex>.

  • MutexLock with std::mutex, and #include "itkMutexLock.h" with #include <mutex>.

  • mpl::EnableIf<X>::Type with std::enable_if_t<X>, and #include "itkEnableIf.h" with #include <type_traits>.

  • mpl::IsSame<X, Y>::Value with std::is_same<X, Y>::value, and #include "itkIsSame.h" with #include <type_traits>.

  • mpl::IsBaseOf<X, Y>::Value with std::is_base_of<X, Y>::value, and #include "itkIsBaseOf.h" with #include <type_traits>.

  • mpl::IsConvertible<X, Y>::Value with std::is_convertible<X, Y>::value, and #include "itkIsBaseOf.h" with #include <type_traits>.

Modern CMake requirement#

ITK now requires CMake 3.10.2 for configuration. While only a few features enabled by this modern version of CMake are being used for 5.0 release, a modern version of CMake is a prerequisite for future more aggressive updates to ITK’s build system. This is planned for a later version.

Before making other changes suggested in this document, your code should work with the latest version of CMake.

Updated style#

Important changes in style have also been integrated in ITK to match C++11 best practices. This includes replacing typedef calls with the keyword using, the usage of the keyword auto when appropriate, and moving the macros ITK_DISALLOW_COPY_AND_ASSIGN or ITK_DISALLOW_COPY_AND_MOVE from the private class section to the public class section. The ITK Software Guide has been updated to match these changes.

Multithreading refactored#

Since ITK 5.0 itk::MultiThreader has been split into a class hierarchy. Instead of a single itk::MultiThreader class which could optionally delegate work to an itk::ThreadPool, there are now multiple backends to provide thread-based parallel processing. Most of the time you will want to replace itk::MultiThreader by itk::MultiThreaderBase.

PlatformMultiThreader is essentially the old itk::MultiThreader, renamed. itk::PoolMultiThreader behaves like the old itk::MultiThreader with ITK_USE_THREADPOOL=ON. There is an addition of TBBMultiThreader, which uses Intel Thread Building Blocks library’s thread-pool, with has load balancing features. The option to build TBB support must be enabled during the CMake configuration step. The default multi-threader can be set via environment variable ITK_GLOBAL_DEFAULT_THREADER with possible case-insensitive values of Platform, Pool and TBB, e.g. ITK_GLOBAL_DEFAULT_THREADER=tbb.

For filter multi-threading, a new signature has been introduced: void DynamicThreadedGenerateData( const OutputRegionType& threadRegion ). By default, this new signature is invoked instead of the classic void ThreadedGenerateData( const OutputRegionType& threadRegion, ThreadIdType threadId ). To temporarily obtain the old behavior (classic signature invoked by default), set ITKV4_COMPATIBILITY to ON in ITK’s CMake configuration. To permanently have your filter use the classic threading model, invoke this->DynamicMultiThreadingOff(); in the filter constructor. That is required if any of the following is true:

  • Your filter needs a constant number of threads (known in advance)

  • Your filter uses threadId parameter in ThreadedGenerateData()

  • Your filter uses a custom region splitting method

Additionally, replace itk::MultiThreader by itk::PlatformMultiThreader if any of the following is true:

  • Your filter uses cross-thread synchronization e.g. itk::Barrier

  • Your filter uses MultipleMethodExecute()

  • Your filter uses SpawnThread/TerminateThread

It is strongly advised to not explicitly use itk::PlatformMultiThreader. SpawnThread/TerminateThread and MultipleMethodExecute can be replaced by C++11 std::thread. Code in the example below shows how to remove dependence on barrier by using ParallelizeImageRegion.

  • Pattern for Multiple Parallel Operations:

  // code1 (parallel)
  if (threadId == 0)
    // code2 single-threaded
  // code3 (parallel)

after refactoring to not use barrier:

GenerateData() // Not Threaded
  ParallelizeImageRegion(code1 as lambda)
  // code2 single-threaded
  ParallelizeImageRegion(code3 as lambda)
  • ITK_THREAD_RETURN_TYPE is now in the itk:: namespace

  static itk::ITK_THREAD_RETURN_TYPE NetworkingThreaderCallback( void * );
  static ITK_THREAD_RETURN_TYPE NetworkingThreaderCallback( void * );

  • ThreadInfoStruct is renamed to WorkUnitInfo

    (((itk::PlatformMultiThreader::WorkUnitInfo *)(arg))->UserData);
    (((itk::MultiThreader::ThreadInfoStruct *)(arg))->UserData);
  • Pattern for Parallel Counting: Previously parallel counting was often storing per-thread counts in an itk::Array and aggregating the result in a filter’s AfterThreadedGenerateData(). With C++11, you might want to instead use std::atomic. An external module example that demonstrates this can be found in this commit.

Before, using itk::Array:

// Members:
Array<SizeValueType> m_NumVoxelsInsideMask;
  // Resize the thread temporaries

ThreadedGenerateData(const RegionType & outputRegionForThread, ThreadIdType threadId)
  // Do algorithm per threadId
  // Store the results per thread at the end
  m_NumVoxelsInsideMask[threadId] = numVoxelsForThisRegion;

  // Retrieve and sum all the results per thread.
  ThreadIdType  numberOfThreads = this->GetNumberOfThreads();
  SizeValueType numVoxelsInsideMask = 0;
  for (unsigned int i = 0; i < numberOfThreads; ++i)
    numVoxelsInsideMask += m_NumVoxelsInsideMask[i];

After, using std::atomic:

// Members:
std::atomic<SizeValueType> m_NumVoxelsInsideMask;
  // Initialize atomics;

DynamicThreadedGenerateData(const RegionType & outputRegionForThread)
  // Do algorithm without handling threadId
  m_NumVoxelsInsideMask.fetch_add(numVoxelsForThisRegion, std::memory_order_relaxed);

  // Get the value from the atomic
  SizeValueType numVoxelsInsideMask = m_NumVoxelsInsideMask.load();

Get/SetGlobalMaximumNumberOfThreads(), and GlobalDefaultNumberOfThreads() now reside in itk::MultiThreaderBase. With a warning, they are still available in itk::PlatformMultiThreader. GetGlobalDefaultNumberOfThreadsByPlatform() has also been moved from itk::ThreadPool to itk::MultiThreaderBase. In image filters and other descendents of itk::ProcessObject, method SetNumberOfThreads has been renamed into SetNumberOfWorkUnits. For itk::MultiThreaderBase and descendents, SetNumberOfThreads has been split into SetMaximumNumberOfThreads and SetNumberOfWorkUnits. Load balancing is possible when NumberOfWorkUnits is greater than the number of threads. The common case of innerFilter->SetNumberOfThreads(1); should be replaced by innerFilter->SetNumberOfWorkUnits(1);. Generally, in most places where threads were being manipulated before, work units should be accessed or changed now.

To transition to the new threading model, it is usually enough to rename ThreadedGenerateData into DynamicThreadedGenerateData, remove the threadId parameter, and remove progress reporting which uses threadId. Progress is being reported by multi-threaders on behalf of filters which use DynamicThreadedGenerateData signature.

If your class needs to also work with legacy code where ITKV4_COMPATIBILITY is enabled, invoke this->DynamicMultiThreadingOn(); in the filter constructor. An example of an external module that transitioned to the new threading model can be found in this commit.

The variables ITK_MAX_THREADS and ITK_DEFAULT_THREAD_ID are now in the itk:: namespace. Backwards compatibility is currently supported by exposing these to the global namespace with

  using itk::ITK_MAX_THREADS;

Spatial Objects Refactoring#

The SpatialObject classes were refactored to address issues and inconsistencies that had arisen over the years. The severity of these issues and inconsistencies was such that the classes provided incorrect and/or unexpected behaviors that made their proper usage problematic.

The most notable change is that dependencies on VNL Tree data structures and the requirement that every SpatialObject be defined in an object space were eliminated. The VNL Tree data structures introduced unnecessary complexity, additional (redundant) transformations, and dependencies on VNL in the API that ITKv5 seeks to eliminate. The elimination of a dependency on an IndexSpace simplified the set of transformations that each SpatialObject needed to maintain and made the API of every SpatialObject more consistent and intuitive.

SpatialObjects now only have two spaces and two transforms directly associated with them:

  • ObjectSpace is the space that is “local” to each object. It is the physical space in which its data/parameters are defined. For example, for an ImageSpatialObject it is the “PhysicalSpace” (see Image Class definition) of the Image. For an Line/Tube/DTI and other point-based SpatialObjects, it is the inherent space in which the Point coordinates are specififed. Typically, when a SpatialObject is extracted from an Image, the parameters/coordinates of the SpatialObject are the space as the physical space of the source Image. Any children of a SpatialObject are defined within the ObjectSpace of that parent SpatialObject.

  • ObjectToParent transform is the transform applied to move a SpatialObject within its parent object’s ObjectSpace. An ObjectToParent transform is an invertible affine transform. It is used to, for example, align a SpatialObject with a parent image (e.g., if an object is extracted from one ImageSpatialObject but then aligned to and made a child of another ImageSpatialObject as is needed for atlas-based image segmentation or for image-to-image registration). If an object does not have a parent, then its ObjectToParent transform specifies how that object is positioned in “WorldSpace”, as defined next.

  • WorldSpace is the coordinate system defined by the top-level SpatialObject in a hierarchy (defined by parent-child relationships) of a set of SpatialObjects. The top-level SpatialObject does not have a parent SpatialObject, and its ObjectToParentTransform specifies how its ObjectSpace is transformed to map into the WorldSpace.

  • ObjectToWorld transform is a derived transform that is managed by each SpatialObject for convenience (e.g., to save redundant computations). It is a composition of all of the ObjectToParent transforms from an object’s ObjectSpace to the WorldSpace in which it exists. If an application maintains a single WorldSpace, point selections, object intersections, and such can be readily resolved by using the ObjectToWorld transforms (and their inverses) at each object.

Each member function and variable of a SpatialObject now explicitly declares (via its name) if it is operating in WorldSpace or ObjectSpace. For example, the IsInside( point ) function has been replaced by two functions IsInsideInObjectSpace( point ) and IsInsideInWorldSpace( point ) functions.

As implied above, the changes to SpatialObject are extensive. They include the following:

  • Replace use of ComputeMyBoundingBox() with Update();

  • Replace use of ComputeObjectToWorldTransform() with Update();

  • Eliminate IndexToX transforms. SpatialObjects exist purely in physical space coordinates

  • Eliminate vnl TreeNode usage. SpatialObjects now track their transforms, parents, and children directly.

  • Eliminate AffineGeometryFrame

  • Eliminate OffsetTable computation

  • Dimension renamed to ObjectDimension - for consistency

  • AddSpatialObject() renamed to AddChild() - for consistency

  • RemoveSpatialObject() renamed to RemoveChild() - for consistency

  • Clear() renamed to ClearChildren() - for clarity and consistency

  • AddChildrenToList() added to speed parsing of children in tree

  • GetSpatialObjectTypeAsString() is now GetClassNameAndDimension()

  • PropertyType is not templated

  • Converted API from using char * to using std::string

  • SetParent() and AddChild() now create consistent trees and do not cause a spatial object to move in physical space (i.e., transforms are updated appropriately).

  • RemoveChild() and RemoveAllChildren() fixed to remove all pointers to / from those children to / from the tree

  • Helper functions simplify the specification of IsInsideInObjectSpace(), ValueAtInObjectSpace(), and other computations that potentially traverse an SO tree.

  • Derived classes typically only need to implement IsInsideInObjectSpace() and ComputeMyBoundingBoxInObjectSpace() member functions. Logic for ValueAtInObjectSpace(), IsInsideInWorldSpace() and such is improved.

  • PointBasedSpatialObjects had a PointListType type declaration. This was confusing because it referred to a list of SpatialObjectPoints and not ITK::Points. So, to avoid such confusion, now TubeSpatialObjects define TubePointListType, BlobSpatialObjects define BlobPointListType, and so forth.

  • ImageMaskSpatialObject::GetAxisAlignedBoundingBoxRegion() was removed. ImageMaskSpatialObject::ComputeMyBoundingBoxInIndexSpace() should be used instead.

  • SpatialObjectReader::GetScene was renamed to GetGroup along with changing the type from ScenePointer to GroupPointer.

    • Elements of a Group are now Children, so scene->GetObjects now becomes group->GetChildren

Class changes#

itk::FilterWatcher was deleted. It should be replaced by itk::SimpleFilterWatcher.

itksys::hash_map has been removed. It should be replaced by std::unordered_map.

WatershedImageFilter produces slightly different results due to changes of hash_map. Generally, MorphologicalWatersheds produce more stable results and should be preferred to regular watersheds.

Since itk::ProgressReporter does not work well with the new threading model, it should be replaced by itk::ProgressTransformer. This only applies to classes which use GenerateData() method, and either have multiple ParallelizeRegion calls or a long single-threaded section. An example of how to add progress reporting can be found in this commit.

Otsu filters now return the correct threshold (bin’s maximum value instead of mid-point) with ITKv5. The old behavior is kept when ITKV4_COMPATIBILITY is enabled by setting ReturnBinMidpoint to true by default. It is recommended when migrating to ITKv5 to explicitly set the ReturnBinMidpoint value to false. This change may effect computations which rely on the results of an Otsu threshold filter.

HoughTransform2DCirclesImageFilter<TInputPixelType, TOutputPixelType, TRadiusPixelType> no longer has a default argument for its last template parameter. Instead, users of the filter should now explicitly specify all three template arguments. Earlier versions of ITK assumed that the radius pixel type should be the same as TOutputPixelType. However, it appears that for the radius pixel type (TRadiusPixelType), a floating point type is often preferred, whereas for the accumulator output pixel type (TOutputPixelType), an unsigned integer type is often more appropriate.

GaussianDerivativeImageFunction::ImageDimension2 is renamed to GaussianDerivativeImageFunction::ImageDimension. The nested GaussianDerivativeImageFunction types GaussianDerivativeFunctionType and GaussianDerivativeFunctionPointer are renamed to GaussianDerivativeSpatialFunctionType and GaussianDerivativeSpatialFunctionPointer, respectively.

All descendents of itk::InterpolateImageFunction must implement SizeType GetRadius() const to indicate support radius of the interpolator. This is used in itk::ResampleImageFilter to support streaming.

With ITK 5.0, itk::ProcessObject::VerifyPreconditions() and itk::ProcessObject::VerifyInputInformation are now declared const, so if you have overridden these virtual member function, make sure that you also add const. If your application needs to compile with both ITKv4 and ITKv5, you should use macro ITKv5_CONST instead of const keyword. This macro is present in ITKv4 since commit commit b40f74e on 2018-11-14.

itk::Barrier, itk::VectorResampleImageFilter and itk::VectorCastImageFilter have been moved to ITKDeprecated module.

itk::TreeNode, itk::TreeContainer, itk::TreeIteratorBase, and all related classes have been moved to ITKDeprecated module.

FixedArray member functions rBegin() and rEnd() are replaced by rbegin() and rend(), which return a reverse_iterator, compatible with the Standard C++ Library.

BoundingBox member function GetCorners() is replaced by ComputeCorners(), which return an std::array<PointType, NumberOfCorners>, instead of a pointer to a PointsContainer.

itk::ImageTransformer has been moved to ITKDeprecated module. The new itk::ImageSink filter can be used in its place.

itk::StatisticsImageFilter, itk::LabelStatisticsImageFilter and itk::MinimumMaximumImageFilter no longer produce an image as their primary output, as it was a shallow copy of the primary input. Additionally, minor API changes have occurred related to the decorated output methods to conform to ITK conventions.

itk::NiftiImageIO was changed to support different kinds of Analyze file conventions. See Mayo/SPM “Analyze” Format Spec Compilation for detailed description. The method SetLegacyAnalyze75Mode is now expecting parameter specifying which convention to use:

  • itk::Analyze75Flavor::AnalyzeReject - refuse to read Analyze files and show an error message

  • itk::Analyze75Flavor::AnalyzeITK4 - behaviour introduced in ITK4 NIFTI reader

  • itk::Analyze75Flavor::AnalyzeITK4Warning - same as AnalyzeITK4, but a warning will be displayed

  • itk::Analyze75Flavor::AnalyzeSPM - use SPM convention, same as Analyze reader in ITK3/ITK4

  • itk::Analyze75Flavor::AnalyzeFSL - use FSL convention There is also now CMake configuration option ITK_NIFTI_IO_ANALYZE_FLAVOR which specifies default behaviour of the reader, ITK4Warning is the default.

itk::Transform class had method signature change. void ComputeJacobianWithRespectToPosition(const PointType &, JacobianType &) const now has signature void ComputeJacobianWithRespectToPosition(const PointType &, JacobianPositionType &) const. JacobianPositionType is publicly exposed in itk::Transform. See commit commit 212cae5 for details.

With ITK 5.3, the GetNumberOfWeights() member functions of itk::BSplineBaseTransform and itk::BSplineInterpolationWeightFunction are replaced by static constexpr data members named NumberOfWeights, and the GetSupportSize() member function of itk::BSplineInterpolationWeightFunction is replaced by a static constexpr data member named SupportSize.

With ITK 5.3, SpatialOrientation was updated to a strongly typed enumeration (see below for details). The namespece itself is only available in legacy mode. Some classes were renamed:

  • itk::SpatialOrientation::CoordinateTerms became itk::SpatialOrientationEnums::CoordinateTerms.

  • itk::SpatialOrientation::CoordinateMajornessTerms became itk::SpatialOrientationEnums::CoordinateMajornessTerms.

  • itk::SpatialOrientation::ValidCoordinateOrientationFlags became itk::SpatialOrientationEnums::ValidCoordinateOrientations.

Since ITK 5.3, OrientationAdapterBase is deprecated. In ITKv6 it will be available in ITKDeprecated module. SpatialOrientationAdapter no longer inherits from it.


Implicit conversion of a single scalar value to a container (which would fill the container by the scalar value) is discouraged. With ITK 5.3, when having ITK_LEGACY_REMOVE=ON, the constructors of Point, RGBPixel, RGBAPixel, and Vector that accept a single scalar value as argument are declared explicit. ITK 5.3 has included a preferable alternative to these constructors: itk::MakeFilled<ContainerType>(value).

itk::NumericTraits can no longer be instantiated with std::complex<T>, if T is not a floating point type. The old behavior can be restored by turning off ITK_LEGACY_REMOVE.

Consolidated Vector Filter#

In ITK 5.0 many “vector” specialized filters and functions are deprecated. These filters commonly contain a “Vector” prefix to the regular filter. “Vector” may refer to an itk::Image of itk::Vector pixel types and/or an itk::VectorImage. Support for “vector” images is being consolidated into the regular filters without the “Vector” prefix. The following deprecated classes need to be replaced as follows:

  • VectorCentralDifferenceImageFunction -> CentralDifferenceImageFunction

  • VectorExpandImageFilter -> ExpandImageFilter

  • VectorCastImageFilter -> CastImageFilter

  • VectorResampleImageFilter -> ResampleImageFilter

Additionally, the following change should be considered:

  • WarpImageFilter -> ResampleImageFilter

  • WarpVectorImageFilter -> ResampleImageFilter

This update to the ITK Examples is illustrative on how to use the ResampleImageFilter in place of a warp filter. Note these warp filters are being considered for deprecation in the future.

Python changes#

Mesh-related class wrapping has been simplified, made more consistent, and expanded, but previous template parameters may not be available.

Arguments to functions in extras were cleaned up and now use snake case.

Strongly Typed Enumerations#

In ITK 5, enumerations are strongly typed, declared with enum class. A best practice in modern C++, strongly typed enum’s offer the following improvements:

  • The enumerators can only be accessed in the scope of the enumeration.

  • The enumerators don’t implicitly convert to int.

  • The enumerators aren’t imported in the enclosing scope.

  • The type of the enumerators is by default int. Therefore, you can forward the enumeration.

In order to preserve as much backwards compatibility as possible, appropriate scoping, provide clean, readable code, facilitate wrapping in languages such as Python, and enable printing enum values to std::ostream with operator<<, and support templates, enums that we previously declared as:

// itkClassName.h
namespace itk

class ClassName
  enum Choices

} // namespace itk

are now declared as:

// itkClassName.h
namespace itk

class ClassNameEnums
  enum class Choices : uint8_t
extern ITKModuleName_EXPORT std::ostream &
operator<<(std::ostream & out, const ClassNameEnums::Choices value);

class ClassName
  using ChoicesEnum = ClassNameEnums::Choices;
#if !defined(ITK_LEGACY_REMOVE)
  using Choices = ChoicesEnum;
  static constexpr Choices One = ChoicesEnum::One;
  static constexpr Choices Two = ChoicesEnum::Two;
  static constexpr Choices Three = ChoicesEnum::Three;

} // namespace itk

// itkClassName.cxx
namespace itk

/** Print enum values */
std::ostream &
operator<<(std::ostream & out, const ClassNameEnums::Choices value)
  return out << [value] {
    switch (value)
      case ClassNameEnums::Choices::One:
        return "itk::ClassNameEnums::Choices::One";
      case ClassNameEnums::Choices::Two:
        return "itk::ClassNameEnums::Choices::Two";
      case ClassNameEnums::Choices::Three:
        return "itk::ClassNameEnums::Choices::Three";
        return "INVALID VALUE FOR itk::ClassNameEnums::Choices";

for a class called ClassName and an enum called Choices.

Wrapping is configured with itk_wrap_simple_class("itk::ClassNameEnums"), which results in access to the enums in Python as itk.ClassNameEnums.Choices_One, itk.ClassNameEnums.Choices_Two, and itk.ClassNameEnums.Choices_Three.

While backwards compatible type aliases and static constexpr backwards compatible values were introduced, the names of the enums were generally made more consistent, and existing code should migrate to new enum names. Since strongly typed enums do not implicitly cast to int’s like classic enums, explicit static_cast’s may be required in migrated code.

Common enums used in classes across the toolkit are now available in the itk::CommonEnums class.

As a consequence of improved enum support, a new library binary to provide enum class operator<< definitions is required for many ITK modules that were previously header-only. As a result, remote modules may encounter build-time link errors such as:

itk::RecursiveGaussianImageFilter<itk::Image<float, 3u>, itk::Image<float, 3u> >::PrintSelf(std::ostream&, itk::Indent) const: error: undefined reference to 'itk::operator<<(std::ostream&, itk::RecursiveGaussianImageFilterEnums::GaussianOrder)' `itk::CommonEnums` class.

To resolve these errors, update the remote module’s dependency specification in itk-module.cmake. List the dependent module under DEPENDS instead of COMPILE_DEPENDS; this will link to the new dependent library.

Update scripts#

Utilities/ITKv5Preparation directory contains bash scripts which have been used to update ITK to version 5. These scripts can assist with updating external code bases to ITK 5 content and style.